Before setting up VoIP for your business, there are multiple configurations and processes that must take place. Two important considerations are codecs and protocols.
One step that takes place in a VoIP phone call is turning voice into numerous packets, and encoding it. Codecs are used to encode and decode both ends of the conversation to allow the information to be sent and received across the network securely. Different codecs have different characteristics and bandwidth requirements. Two of the most popular codecs are G.711 Codec, which uses compression schemes, and G.729 Codec, which uses lossy compression. The G.711 Codec requires more bandwidth than the G.729 Codec, but the G.729 Codec can impact the voice quality.
Once the codec has encoded the data, a protocol is used to transfer data to its target recipient. A protocol is a set of rules or procedures that needs to be followed to allow an orderly communication, and determines the type of error checking and data compression that should be used, as well as how the sending and receiving devices should indicate that they have finished sending or receiving the message. There are a variety of protocols that can be chosen, and they can be either hardware- or software-based. The protocols that are most widely used in the industry include H.323, Mediate Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP), Session Initiated Protocol (SIP), Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP), Session Description Protocol (SDP), H.248, and Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP).